Anthea Black is a Cana­di­an artist, writer, and cul­tur­al work­er based in San Fran­cis­co and Toron­to. Her stu­dio work address­es fem­i­nist and queer his­to­ry, col­lab­o­ra­tion, mate­ri­al­i­ty, and labour, and has been exhib­it­ed in Cana­da, the US, France, Ger­many, The Nether­lands and Nor­way. Black is co-edi­tor of Hand­book: Sup­port­ing Queer and Trans Stu­dents in Art and Design Edu­ca­tion with Sham­i­na Chher­awala, Craft on Demand: The New Pol­i­tics of the Hand­made with Nicole Burisch, and the co-pub­lish­er of The HIV Howler: Trans­mit­ting Art and Activism with Jes­si­ca Whit­bread. Black’s cura­to­r­i­al projects include SINCERITY OVERDRIVE (2005), SUPERSTRING (2006), the ongo­ing research plat­form and tour­ing exhi­bi­tion No Place: Queer Geo­gra­phies on Screen (ini­ti­at­ed in 2011), and PLEASURE CRAFT (2014), which have focused on embod­ied per­spec­tives and pol­i­tics in rela­tion­al prac­tice, con­tem­po­rary tex­tiles, queer film and video, and film craft respec­tive­ly. Black is an Assis­tant Pro­fes­sor in Print­media and Grad­u­ate Fine Arts at Cal­i­for­nia Col­lege of the Arts.


Shan­non Ger­ard is an artist and Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor in Pub­li­ca­tions and Print Media at OCAD Uni­ver­si­ty. Her work spans a vari­ety of media. She pro­duces writ­ten and drawn artist mul­ti­ples and edi­tions, prints, cro­chet, and large-scale instal­la­tions incor­po­rat­ing stop-motion ani­ma­tion and wheat paste. Gerard’s work employs play as a research strat­e­gy. Her areas of inter­est include the mind­set of the col­lec­tor, the sculp­tur­al and per­for­ma­tive pos­si­bil­i­ties sug- gest­ed by books and book-objects, the con­cep­tu­al space that books occu­py be- yond the pre­sen­ta­tion of texts and images, and how the social posi­tion of works (in oth­er words, where we tend to encounter par­tic­u­lar modes of art) medi­ates how we become engaged as readers/viewers. As a self-pro­fessed “pro­fes­sion­al mis­chief mak­er,” her work with public/pedagogical projects such as Th e Carl Wagan Book­mo­bile and Moun­tain School Book­house empha­sizes the mate­ri­als and ethos of inde­pen­dent pub­lish­ing as social-polit­i­cal engagements.


Syrus is a Vanier Schol­ar, visu­al artist, activist, cura­tor and edu­ca­tor. Syrus uses paint­ing, instal­la­tion and per­for­mance to explore social jus­tice frame­works and black activist cul­ture. His work has been shown wide­ly, includ­ing at the Art Gallery of Ontario, the Uni­ver­si­ty of Leth­bridge Art Gallery, Art Gallery of York Uni­ver­si­ty, the Art Gallery of Wind­sor, and as part of the curat­ed con­tent at Nuit Blanche 2017 (The Stolen Peo­ple; Won’t Back Down). His per­for­mance works have been part of fes­ti­vals across Cana­da, includ­ing at Crip­ping The Stage (Har­bourfront Cen­tre, 2016), Com­plex Social Change (Uni­ver­si­ty of Leth­bridge Art Gallery, 2015), and Decol­o­niz­ing and Decrim­i­nal­iz­ing Trans Gen­res (Uni­ver­si­ty of Win­nipeg, 2015). Syrus is a core-team mem­ber of Black Lives Mat­ter — Toron­to. Syrus is also part of Black­ness Yes!/Blockorama. Syrus has won sev­er­al awards, includ­ing the TD Diver­si­ty Award in 2017. Syrus was vot­ed “Best Queer Activist” by NOW Mag­a­zine (2005) and was award­ed the Stein­ert and Fer­reiro Award for LGBT com­mu­ni­ty lead­er­ship and activism (2012). Syrus is a PhD can­di­date at York Uni­ver­si­ty in the Fac­ul­ty of Envi­ron­men­tal Studies.


Tania Willard, Secwepemc Nation, works with­in the shift­ing ideas of con­tem­po­rary and tra­di­tion­al as it relates to cul­tur­al arts and pro­duc­tion. Willard often works with bod­ies of knowl­edge and skills that are con­cep­tu­al­ly linked to her inter­est in inter­sec­tions between Abo­rig­i­nal and oth­er cul­tures. Willard has worked as a cura­tor in res­i­dence with grunt gallery and Kam­loops Art Gallery. Willard’s cura­to­r­i­al work includes Beat Nation: Art Hip Hop and Abo­rig­i­nal Cul­ture, a nation­al tour­ing exhi­bi­tion first pre­sent­ed at Van­cou­ver Art Gallery in 2011. Recent­ly Willard curat­ed CUSTOM MADE at Kam­loops Art Gallery and was select­ed as one of five Nation­al cura­tors for a Nation­al scope exhi­bi­tion in col­lab­o­ra­tion with Part­ners in Art and Nation­al Parks. Her upcom­ing project co-curat­ed by Karen Duf­fek will be a solo show, Unced­ed Ter­ri­to­ries: Lawrence Paul Yuxwelup­tun at the Muse­um of Anthro­pol­o­gy. Willard’s per­son­al cura­to­r­i­al projects include BUSH gallery, a con­cep­tu­al space for land-based art and action led by Indige­nous artists.


Helen Reed and Han­nah Jick­ling have been col­lab­o­rat­ing since 2006. Their projects take shape as pub­lic instal­la­tions, social sit­u­a­tions, and events that cir­cu­late as pho­tographs, videos, print­ed mat­ter, and artists’ mul­ti­ples. They are cur­rent­ly fas­ci­nat­ed with the ‘con­tact high’ intrin­sic to col­lab­o­ra­tive research, espe­cial­ly in their recent projects with chil­dren. Helen and Han­nah have exhib­it­ed and per­formed inter­na­tion­al­ly, with both indi­vid­ual and col­lab­o­ra­tive work appear­ing in such venues as: The Port­land Art Muse­um (OR), The Dun­lop Art Gallery (SK), Smack Mel­lon (NY), Doris McCarthy Gallery (ON), The Yukon Arts Cen­tre Gallery (YT), YYZ Artists’ Out­let (ON), Car­leton Uni­ver­si­ty Art Gallery (ON), Dal­housie Uni­ver­si­ty Art Gallery (NS), Bäs­ta Bien­nalen (SE), The Van­cou­ver Art Gallery (BC), The Pow­er Plant (ON) and Flat Time House’s first issue of NOIT (UK). In Fall 2017, they released Mul­ti­ple Ele­men­tary, a book that explores the ele­men­tary school class­room as a site of inven­tion and recep­tion of con­tem­po­rary art prac­tices, pub­lished by YYZBOOKS (Toron­to) and Black Dog (UK). Jick­ling and Reed are recip­i­ents of the 2016 Ian Wal­lace Award for Teach­ing Excel­lence (Emi­ly Carr Uni­ver­si­ty of Art & Design), a 2017 Mayor’s Arts Award for Emerg­ing Pub­lic Art (City of Van­cou­ver) and a 2018 VIVA Award (Jack and Doris Shad­bolt Foun­da­tion for the Visu­al Arts).


Rodri­go Her­nan­dez Gomez cre­ates instal­la­tions, artist mul­ti­ples, and social­ly-engaged projects. His instal­la­tions explore non-dom­i­nant forms of cul­tur­al authen­tic­i­ty and co-insti­tut­ing mod­els through wall texts, video, and pho­to-col­lage. His civic-engaged projects deal with estates of migrant knowl­edge, val­ue cre­ation, and crit­i­cal ped­a­gogy. His artist mul­ti­ples are wear­able pieces, such as gog­gles and head­pieces, that sit­u­ate Indige­nous Nahua aes­thet­ics in jux­ta­po­si­tion with dias­poric expres­sion. Rodri­go was born in the Anahuac (Mex­i­co City) and raised near Cuicuil­co. He is of Nahua descent and is cur­rent­ly mak­ing work in Cana­da, Italy and Scot­land. His instal­la­tions, new-media work, wear­able art pieces and per­for­ma­tive projects have been pre­sent­ed inter­na­tion­al­ly, includ­ing con­tri­bu­tions to: the Hemi­spher­ic Encuen­tro, Sao Pao­lo, Brazil; the Nation­al Muse­um of Art, La Paz, Bolivia; and the Justi­na M. Bar­nicke Gallery, Toron­to. In 2013, he was a co-orga­niz­er of the Decolo­nial Aes­thet­ics Sym­po­sium in Toron­to. Rodri­go is a found­ing mem­ber of AYOTZI 68; a cul­tur­al orga­ni­za­tion for sup­port­ing hemi­spher­ic Indige­nous shar­ing in con­tem­po­rary art, rad­i­cal edu­ca­tion and food sov­er­eign­ty move­ments. As a mem­ber of La Lle­ca Col­lec­ti­va (Mex­i­co City), E‑fagia LA media arts (Toron­to), AYOTZI 68 (Van­cou­ver), and in his ongo­ing col­lab­o­ra­tions with oth­er artists, Rodri­go is com­mit­ted to a crit­i­cal, intel­lec­tu­al and col­lab­o­ra­tive artis­tic practice.


Alexa Hatana­ka is a visu­al artist work­ing pri­mar­i­ly in relief print-mak­ing and tex­tile based in Toron­to. She also paints large-scale murals and cre­ates work that is based in mate­r­i­al explo­ration, craft and play­ful rep­re­sen­ta­tion. She employs dif­fer­ent com­bi­na­tions of print­mak­ing, weav­ing and dying, paint­ing, and paper-mak­ing. In recent years, her colour­ful, tac­tile works have been shown at: the Nan­jing Arts Insti­tute, Chi­na; La Place Forte, Paris; Artic­u­late Baboon, Egypt and the Man­i­festo Fes­ti­val, Toron­to. Hatana­ka is Japan­ese Cana­di­an and embod­ies her her­itage with­in her prac­tice in its spir­it of sol­i­dar­i­ty, grit, and social jus­tice. Hatanaka’s col­lab­o­ra­tive prac­tice, PA Sys­tem with Patrick Thomp­son, cre­ates pub­lic art­work, paint­ing and video. They exhib­it in insti­tu­tions inter­na­tion­al­ly, such as the Cana­da House in Lon­don, the Cen­tre de Cul­tura Con­tem­porà­nia de Barcelona, and the Art Gallery of Ontario. PA Sys­tem has an ongo­ing project called Embassy of Imag­i­na­tion (EOI) based in Kin­ngait (Cape Dorset, Nunavut) for and with Kin­ngait youth.


PA Sys­tem (Alexa Hatana­ka and Patrick Thomp­son) cre­ate pub­lic art­work and work in tex­tile, print­mak­ing, paint­ing, and video. They exhib­it in insti­tu­tions inter­na­tion­al­ly, such as the Cana­da House in Lon­don, the Cen­tre de Cul­tura Con­tem­porà­nia de Barcelona and the Art Gallery of Ontario. PA Sys­tem has an ongo­ing project called Embassy of Imag­i­na­tion (EOI) based in Kin­ngait (Cape Dorset, Nunavut) for and with Kin­ngait youth. EOI ani­mates year­ly art work­shops and cre­ates col­lab­o­ra­tive com­mu­ni­ty art projects, includ­ing pub­lic murals, per­for­mances, and exhi­bi­tions, with­in Kin­ngait, and across Cana­da and inter­na­tion­al­ly. The youth have an impor­tant voice both as indi­vid­ual artists, and through col­lec­tive­ly con­tribut­ing to Indige­nous place-mak­ing, and chal­leng­ing the expec­ta­tions for youth-engaged art. EOI is a rec­i­p­ro­cal shar­ing of knowl­edge and ideas, express­ing cross-cul­tur­al col­lab­o­ra­tion and shared human expe­ri­ence as an embod­ied prac­tice and in mate­r­i­al form. PA Sys­tem and EOI are cre­at­ing a com­mis­sion for the forth­com­ing Toron­to Bien­ni­al of Art.


Elana Mann brings a greater con­scious­ness to the lis­ten­ing and speak­ing we prac­tice in every­day life. She has pre­sent­ed her art­work in city parks, muse­ums, gal­leries, and bus­es includ­ing: Pitzer Col­lege Art Gal­leries, Clare­mont, CA; the Muse­um of Con­tem­po­rary Art, San Diego; The Muse­um of Con­tem­po­rary Art, Chica­go, IL; Com­mon­wealth & Coun­cil, Los Ange­les; Ben Maltz Gallery, Otis Col­lege of Art and Design, Los Ange­les; REDCAT, Los Ange­les; The Get­ty Vil­la, Los Ange­les; Mon­tal­vo Arts Cen­ter, Sarato­ga, CA; and the Lu Xun Acad­e­my of Fine Arts, Shenyang, Chi­na. She is involved with numer­ous collaborative/collective endeav­ors and most recent­ly orga­nized Chats About Change with Rob­by Herb­st, a series of grass-roots con­ver­sa­tions with artists involved in cre­ative social change. She is a recip­i­ent of awards from the Cal­i­for­nia Com­mu­ni­ty Foun­da­tion, the Cen­ter for Cre­ative Inno­va­tion, the Rema Hort Mann Foun­da­tion, and the Foun­da­tion for Con­tem­po­rary Arts. In 2017 she was rec­og­nized as a Cul­tur­al Trail­blaz­er by the City of Los Ange­les and was the 2017–18 artist-in-res­i­dence at Pitzer College’s Ceram­ics Depart­ment. Her writ­ing has been pub­lished in peri­od­i­cals and books such as After­all jour­nal, Art 21, and In the Canyon, Revise the Canon.


Peo­ple’s Kitchen Col­lec­tive (PKC) works at the inter­sec­tion of art and activism as a food-cen­tered polit­i­cal edu­ca­tion project. Based in Oak­land, Cal­i­for­nia, our cre­ative prac­tices reflect the diverse his­to­ries and back­grounds of co-founders Sita Kurato­mi Bhau­mik, Joce­lyn Jack­son, and Saqib Keval. Writ­ten in our fam­i­lies’ recipes are the maps of our migra­tions and the sto­ries of our resilience. It is from this foun­da­tion that we cre­ate immer­sive expe­ri­ences that hon­or the shared strug­gles of our peo­ple. We believe in rad­i­cal hos­pi­tal­i­ty as a strat­e­gy to address the urgent social issues of our time. We approach com­mu­ni­ty din­ing as a social prac­tice, cre­at­ing meals in col­lab­o­ra­tion with artists, poets, researchers, and activists as mul­ti-sen­so­ry pro­duc­tions of cul­tur­al resilience and joy­ous polit­i­cal cri­tique. Through pub­lic speak­ing and work­shops, we share our exper­tise and research of food and social move­ments to build sol­i­dar­i­ty across race, class, nation­al­i­ty and gen­der. We cre­ate par­tic­i­pa­to­ry projects with muse­ums, gal­leries, and in pub­lic spaces that engage the social politic and poten­tial of food. For more infor­ma­tion vis­it:


Jen Delos Reyes is a cre­ative labour­er, edu­ca­tor, writer, and rad­i­cal com­mu­ni­ty arts orga­niz­er. Her prac­tice is as much about work­ing with insti­tu­tions as it is about cre­at­ing and sup­port­ing sus­tain­able artist-led cul­ture. Delos Reyes worked with­in Port­land State Uni­ver­si­ty from 2008–2014 to cre­ate the first flex­i­ble res­i­den­cy Art and Social Prac­tice MFA pro­gram in the Unit­ed States and devised the cur­ricu­lum that focused on place, engage­ment, and dia­logue. The flex­i­ble res­i­den­cy pro­gram allows for artists embed­ded in their com­mu­ni­ties to remain on site through­out their course of study. She is the direc­tor and founder of Open Engage­ment, an inter­na­tion­al annu­al con­fer­ence on social­ly-engaged art that has been active since 2007. She is the author of I’m Going to Live the Life I Sing About in My Song: How Artists Make and Live Lives of Mean­ing, a book explor­ing the artist impe­tus toward art and every­day life. Delos Reyes cur­rent­ly lives and works in Chica­go, IL where she is the Asso­ciate Direc­tor of the School of Art and Art His­to­ry at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Illi­nois Chicago.

Mare Liberum (ML) is a col­lec­tive of visu­al artists, design­ers, and writ­ers who formed around a shared engage­ment with New York’s water­ways in 2007. As part of a mobile, inter­dis­ci­pli­nary and ped­a­gog­i­cal prac­tice, the col­lec­tive has: designed and built boats; pub­lished broad­sides, essays and books; invent­ed water-relat­ed art and edu­ca­tion­al forums; and col­lab­o­rat­ed with diverse insti­tu­tions in order to pro­duce pub­lic talks​, ​col­lab­o­ra­tive exhi­bi­tions, ​par­tic­i­pa­to­ry works and voy­ages. ML’s work bridges dia­logues in art, activism, and sci­ence by remap­ping land­scapes, reclaim­ing local ecolo­gies, and observ­ing and record­ing the over­laps of nature, indus­try and the polis. The collective’s projects con­nect diver­gent con­stituen­cies with shared envi­ron­men­tal con­cerns, cre­ate water­front nar­ra­tives rang­ing from the indus­tri­al to the per­son­al, and cat­alyze the cre­ation of engaged publics. Employ­ing the method­olo­gies of civic hack­ing, par­tic­i­pa­tion, open source, social sculp­ture, and tem­po­rary occu­pa­tions, the col­lec­tive extrap­o­lates on Lefebvre’s or Har­vey’s ‘right to the city’ to include its neglect­ed water­ways. Mare Liberum has pre­sent­ed work at the Cen­tre Pom­pi­dou — Musée nation­al d’art mod­erne, Paris, the Car­pen­ter Cen­ter for the Visu­al Arts at Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty, the Par­rish Art Muse­um, MASS MoCA, the Neu­berg­er Muse­um, and EFA Project Space, among oth­ers. The col­lec­tive is Jean Bar­beris, Dylan Gau­thi­er, Ben Cohen, Stephan von Muehlen, Arthur Pois­son, Suni­ta Prasad, and Kendra Sullivan.


BFAM­FAPhD is a col­lec­tive that employs visu­al and per­form­ing art, pol­i­cy reports, and teach­ing tools to advo­cate for cul­tur­al equi­ty in the Unit­ed States. The work of the col­lec­tive is to bring peo­ple togeth­er to ana­lyze and reimag­ine rela­tion­ships of pow­er in the arts. BFAM­FAPhD received crit­i­cal acclaim for Artists Report Back (2014), which was pre­sent­ed as the 50th anniver­sary keynote at the Nation­al Endow­ment for the Arts and was exhib­it­ed at the Brook­lyn Muse­um, the Muse­um of Art and Design, Gallery 400 in Chica­go, Cor­nell Uni­ver­si­ty, and the Cleve­land Insti­tute of Art. Its work has been reviewed in The Atlantic, the New York Times, the Wash­ing­ton Post, the New York­er, Andrew Sullivan’s The Dish, WNYC, and Hyper­al­ler­gic, and it has been sup­port­ed by res­i­den­cies and fel­low­ships at the Queens Muse­um, Tri­an­gle Arts Asso­ci­a­tion, NEWINC and PROJECT THIRD at Pratt Insti­tute. BFAM­FAPhD mem­bers Susan Jaho­da and Car­o­line Woolard are now work­ing on Mak­ing and Being, a mul­ti-plat­form ped­a­gog­i­cal project that offers prac­tices of col­lab­o­ra­tion, con­tem­pla­tion, and social-eco­log­i­cal analy­sis for visu­al artists.

Mak­ing and Being is a con­tri­bu­tion to BFAM­FAPhD made by Susan Jaho­da and Car­o­line Woolard. Susan Jaho­da is a Pro­fes­sor in Stu­dio Arts at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Amherst, MA and Car­o­line Woolard is an Assis­tant Pro­fes­sor of Sculp­ture at The Uni­ver­si­ty of Hart­ford, CT. Cur­rent­ly sup­port­ing this project are col­lec­tive mem­bers Agnes Szanyi, and Vicky Vir­gin, mem­bers of BFAM­FAPhD. Agnes Szanyi is a Doc­tor­al Stu­dent at The New School for Social Research in New York, NY and Vicky Vir­gin is a Research Asso­ciate with the May­or’s Office for Eco­nom­ic Oppor­tu­ni­ty in New York, NY. From 2016–2018, Emilio Mar­tinez Poppe was a Fel­low sup­port­ing Mak­ing and Being.


Josh MacPhee is a design­er, artist, and archivist. He is a found­ing mem­ber of both the Just­seeds Artists’ Coop­er­a­tive and Inter­fer­ence Archive, a pub­lic col­lec­tion of cul­tur­al mate­ri­als pro­duced by social move­ments based in Brook­lyn, NY ( MacPhee is also the cura­tor of the polit­i­cal­ly charged print­mak­ing exhi­bi­tion Paper Pol­i­tics, which has been tour­ing North Amer­i­ca since 2004. In 2001, he co-orga­nized the Depart­ment of Space and Land Recla­ma­tion in Chica­go with Emi­ly For­man and Nato Thomp­son. In 2018, he also co-orga­nized the exhi­bi­tion Free Edu­ca­tion! The Free Uni­ver­si­ty of New York, and the Lib­er­a­tion of Edu­ca­tion, with exhi­bi­tion cura­tor, Jacob Jack­ob­sen. MacPhee is the author and edi­tor of numer­ous pub­li­ca­tions, includ­ing Signs of Change: Social Move­ment Cul­tures 1960s to Now and Sig­nal: A Jour­nal of Inter­na­tion­al Polit­i­cal Graph­ics and Cul­ture. He has orga­nized the Cel­e­brate Peo­ple’s His­to­ry poster series since 1998 and has designed book cov­ers for many pub­lish­ers over the past decade (


Ves­na Krstich is an art crit­ic, cura­tor, and art his­to­ri­an who teach­es Visu­al Arts and The­o­ry of Knowl­edge at Upper Cana­da Col­lege in Toron­to. Her research explores the inter­re­la­tion­ship between per­for­mance-based prac­tices and exper­i­men­tal ped­a­gogy from the 1960s onwards. She holds an MA in Art Edu­ca­tion from Con­cor­dia Uni­ver­si­ty and an MA in the His­to­ry of Art from the Cour­tauld Insti­tute of Art, where she spe­cial­ized in Con­tem­po­rary Art. In 2013, she devel­oped a cura­to­r­i­al res­i­den­cy enti­tled Back to School at Gallery TPW in Toron­to, which sought to exam­ine per­for­mance instruc­tions or ‘scores’ as cur­ricu­lum mate­r­i­al through a pro­gram of work­shops, screen­ings, and artist talks. As a col­lab­o­ra­tor on The Ped­a­gog­i­cal Impulse project, she con­tin­ues her archival inves­ti­ga­tion into the his­to­ries of Fluxus and Hap­pen­ings, and cur­ricu­lum reform. Krstich has received research grants from the Cana­da Coun­cil for the Arts, Ontario Arts Coun­cil and the Toron­to Arts Coun­cil. She has pub­lished in C Mag­a­zine, Art Papers, Para­chute, Cana­di­an Art, and Cura­tor: The Muse­um Jour­nal, among oth­ers. Her recent pub­li­ca­tion, Mul­ti­ple Ele­men­tary, Mul­ti­ple Left­overs, Mul­ti­ple Learn­ing appears in a crit­i­cal anthol­o­gy of texts edit­ed by Helen Reed and Han­nah Jick­ling, and joint­ly pub­lished by YYZBOOKS (Toron­to) and Black Dog (UK) in 2017.

Stephanie Spring­gay is an Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor in the Depart­ment of Cur­ricu­lum, Teach­ing, and Learn­ing at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to. She is a lead­ing schol­ar in research-cre­ation method­olo­gies with a focus on walk­ing, affect, new mate­ri­alisms and posthu­man­isms, queer the­o­ry, and con­tem­po­rary art and ped­a­gogy. Her most recent research-cre­ation projects are doc­u­ment­ed at, and She has pub­lished wide­ly in aca­d­e­m­ic jour­nals and is the co-author of the book Walk­ing Method­olo­gies in a More- than-Human World: Walk­inglab (Rout­ledge); co-edi­tor of M/othering a Bod­ied Cur­ricu­lum: Emplace­ment, Desire, Affect (Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to Press), co- edi­tor of Cur­ricu­lum and the Cul­tur­al Body (Peter Lang); and author of Body Knowl­edge and Cur­ricu­lum: Ped­a­go­gies of Touch in Youth and Visu­al Cul­ture (Peter Lang).